Category Archives: Therapy

What Can I Expect From Therapy?

Therapy is an investment of time and money. The process may impact your life significantly. As such, it is important to select a therapist carefully. I encourage people to speak with a few psychologists before booking an initial appointment. The most consistent finding in psychological research is the importance of the therapeutic relationship. A therapist who makes you feel heard, respected, and understood increases the likelihood of a successful outcome.

You may have heard about different kinds of therapy online or from friends. The bottom line is that no one size fits all. Regardless of the type of therapy, every person is unique. Therefore, no two therapies will ever be alike (nor should they be). In the words of the famous psychiatrist Irvin Yalom, “Create a new therapy for each patient.”

I work from a psychodynamic perspective, as I find it to be the most comprehensive way of understanding human problems. Although I draw from several approaches to suit individual needs, my therapeutic work is anchored in psychodynamic theory. Some of the core principles of psychodynamic therapy are:

  • People are frequently unaware of why they feel and behave in the ways that they do. This may lead to the repetition of painful and self-defeating patterns.
  • Honestly about our motives does not come easily to us.
  • People have ways of avoiding psychological pain which may result in personal difficulties.
  • Our view of current experience is shaped by past experience.
  • Human problems manifest in relationships (including the absence of meaningful relationships).
  • The therapeutic relationship itself is a window into understanding a person’s difficulties.
  • There is a collaboration on the purpose, methods, and tasks of therapy. However, the sessions will not have a rigid agenda.

As no one size fits all, it is difficult to determine in advance how long therapy will take. The research indicates that it may take an average of 3-5 sessions for the therapeutic relationship to be established, which includes a mutual understanding about the goals and purpose of therapy (Ladany et al. 2007). It is important to be realistic about therapeutic progress, as difficulties that have been with us for years are unlikely to change in a few weeks.

It is also important to understand the difference between therapies that produce long-lasting change versus therapies that are targeted towards short-term symptom reduction. If a problem is recurring, it is usually because there are underlying dynamics that require attention. If we only attend to the symptoms – and not the cause – it is likely that the symptoms will return within a matter of months. Dr. Emily Anhalt says, “I believe the true way to healing and feeling better in the world is not about ‘whack-a-moling’ symptoms…If all you do is fix a symptom without understanding what the symptom is trying to tell you, then you’re just going to have it pop up as a different symptom later.”

I firmly believe that a successful therapeutic relationship must be an honest one. It is important that we have a clear understanding about what you expect from therapy and what I can offer. For prospective patients, I always have a brief telephone consultation (about 10-15 minutes) to begin exploring whether we might be a good fit. I want the best outcomes for people. If I believe that another practitioner would be a better fit for you, I will offer a referral. If we decide to proceed with therapy, we will become collaborators to work towards your best outcome.

Kay, J. (2006). The essentials of psychodynamic therapy. Focus; 4(2).

Ladany et al. (2007). Practicing Counseling and Psychotherapy.

Psychotherapy Networker (2022). An interview with Emily Anhalt.

Shedler J; Where Is the Evidence for “Evidence-Based” Therapy?; The Psychiatric Clinics Of North America; 2018.

Yalom, I.D. (2002). The Gift of Therapy.

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February is Psychology Month!

The goal of psychology month is to raise awareness about the role that psychology plays in our lives, including our communities and workplaces. To that end, I wanted to write about a topic that is critical for those seeking help: What promotes psychological change?

There is heated debate about which approaches will best address depression, anxiety, and relationship problems. Rather than arguing, I would rather focus on where we can find consensus. What helps people to change in therapy? The following principles have been associated with psychological change (adapted from Goldfried, 2019):

  1. Providing the client with hope that therapy can help.
  2. The establishment of a bond between the therapist and client, along with a shared understanding about the tasks of therapy.
  3. Helping clients to become aware of what is contributing to their difficulties.
  4. Encouraging clients to have corrective experiences. That is, experiences that are different from what they have known before.

The decision to enter therapy is a leap of faith. It is no easy feat to explore our minds, our behaviors, and to contemplate real change. If one chooses to embark on this journey, I encourage them to do so thoughtfully. It is important to understand the differences between mental health professionals, so you may find one who best suits your needs. To learn more about mental health professionals and psychology in Alberta, please visit:

Goldfried, M. (2019). Obtaining consensus in psychotherapy: What holds us back? American Psychologist, 74 (4), 484-496.

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Mental health is health

Mental Health Awareness Week runs October 3-9, 2021. As a practicing psychologist, every week is mental health week. When the spotlight is on psychology, I feel a professional responsibility to highlight some important issues:

  • Mental health is health

There is a health care disparity in Canada. For physical health issues, people are treated until they get well. For mental health issues, a lower standard of care exists. You are placed on a waitlist for services. In the meantime, you receive little support. When you finally do access services, they are often time-limited. While this may work for some, it fails many. To achieve mental health parity, people should receive care until they are well.

  • Long-term support is becoming harder to access

As the demand for mental health services grows and funding is stagnant, it becomes more difficult for people to receive the support they need. Both patients and therapists are being asked to do more with less.

  • Ignoring mental health is expensive

It is estimated that mental health issues cost the workplace about 51 billion per year (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2020). Further, untreated mental health issues often end up in expensive emergency room visits.

The Psychologists’ Association of Alberta has long advocated for mental health parity. Currently, we have a two-tiered system: Those who can afford timely service through a private psychologist, and those who cannot afford it despite critical need. All Albertans, regardless of income, should have access to psychological services.

I would also like to note that if short-term therapies have not worked for you, this is not a personal failing. You are not alone. It takes time to develop a trusting relationship with a therapist. Very often, people would fare better if they were given a little more time. The bottom line is that no one knows in advance how many sessions a person will need. For some, a single-session can be effective. For others, perhaps a handful. In many cases, people will do best with 10 sessions or more. As a society, we need to understand that human connections and healing cannot be rushed. I am hopeful that our advocacy will help Albertans get the support they need.

Dr. Norman Doidge, a Canadian psychiatrist, emphasizes the importance of the therapy relationship.

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Does therapy work?

The answer is yes. The research clearly shows that people who participate in therapy have better outcomes when compared to those that do not (Karyotaki et al., 2016). Approximately 80% of people who receive therapy derive benefit from it (American Psychological Association, 2016). There is also evidence to indicate that people who receive in-depth counselling experience longer-term gains, even after the therapy has ended (Abbass et al., 2006). The most important elements in successful therapy are the relationship between client and counsellor, along with the client’s expectations and contributions to self-improvement (Wampold, 2015). The options for improving mental health can range from low commitment (such as self-help books) to higher commitment (like medication and/or therapy). I would encourage everyone to speak honestly about what they are looking for, regardless of whether they are talking to a family doctor or a psychologist. You are the expert on your life.

Abbass AA, Hancock JT, Henderson J, Kisely S. (2006). Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4.

American Psychological Association. Understanding psychotherapy and how it works. 2016.

Karyotaki, E.; Smit, Y.; Holdt Henningsen, K.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Robayse, J.; de Beurs, D.; Cuijpers, P. (2016). Combining pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy or monotherapy for major depression? A meta-analysis on the long-term effects. Journal of Affective Disorders.

Wampold, B. (2015).  How important are the common factors in psychotherapy? An update. World Psychiatry, 14 (3), pp. 270-277.

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